0.690.58403544933983461940354493398346190.690.580001750284--12-312023Q1false000001750284us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001750284us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001750284us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310001750284us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-03-310001750284us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-03-310001750284us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-03-310001750284us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001750284us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001750284us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310001750284us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310001750284us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-03-310001750284us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310001750284srt:MaximumMemberolma:EquityIncentivePlan2020Member2020-12-3100017502842022-01-012022-12-310001750284us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberolma:EquityIncentivePlan2020Member2022-11-012022-11-300001750284us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberolma:EquityIncentivePlan2020Memberus-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheTwoMember2022-11-012022-11-300001750284us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberolma:EquityIncentivePlan2020Memberus-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMember2022-11-012022-11-300001750284olma:AurigeneAgreementMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:EquipmentMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:EquipmentMember2022-12-310001750284us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2022-12-310001750284us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284olma:OfficeSpaceMember2022-04-300001750284olma:OfficeSpaceMember2022-04-012022-04-300001750284us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesDebtSecuritiesMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-03-310001750284olma:BioMedicalResearchIncMemberolma:NovartisAgreementMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284olma:BioMedicalResearchIncMemberolma:NovartisAgreementMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-03-310001750284olma:TwoThousandTwentyTwoInducementPlanMember2022-12-3100017502842022-03-3100017502842021-12-310001750284us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2023-03-310001750284olma:ShortTermMarketableSecuritiesMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-03-310001750284us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-03-310001750284olma:LaboratoryLeaseAgreementMember2020-12-150001750284olma:MandalmedServicesAgreementAdditionalAreaMember2020-12-010001750284olma:OfficeSpaceMember2020-08-270001750284us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberus-gaap:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementEmployeeMemberolma:EquityIncentivePlan2020Member2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284srt:MaximumMemberolma:EquityIncentivePlan2020Member2020-01-012020-12-310001750284us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-03-310001750284us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-03-310001750284srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2020-01-012020-12-3100017502842022-01-012022-03-310001750284olma:BioMedicalResearchIncMemberolma:NovartisAgreementMember2023-03-310001750284olma:EquityIncentivePlan2020Member2020-01-012020-12-310001750284us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2020-01-012020-12-310001750284olma:MandalmedServicesAgreementAreaMember2013-06-010001750284olma:CommercialMilestoneMemberolma:AurigeneAgreementMember2022-06-012022-06-300001750284olma:AurigeneAgreementMember2022-06-012022-06-3000017502842023-03-3100017502842022-12-3100017502842023-05-0500017502842023-01-012023-03-31xbrli:sharesiso4217:USDolma:itemxbrli:pureutr:sqftiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesolma:securityolma:segment

Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _______ to _______

Commission File Number: 001-39712

OLEMA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Delaware

30-0409740

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

512 2nd Street, 4th Floor

San Francisco, CA

94107

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 243-5555

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class of Securities Registered

Trading Symbol

Name of Each Exchange on which Securities are Registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share

OLMA

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

As of May 5, 2023, the number of outstanding shares of the Registrant’s common stock was 40,761,714.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

PART I-FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

Page

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

3

Item 1. Financial Statements (unaudited)

3

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

3

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

4

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

5

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

6

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

7

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

22

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

32

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

32

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

32

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

32

Item 1A. Risk Factors

32

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

98

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

99

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

99

Item 5. Other Information

99

Item 6. Exhibits

99

2

Table of Contents

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(Unaudited)

(Amounts in thousands, except for share amounts)

March 31, 

December 31, 

2023

2022

Assets

Current assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

    

$

40,918

    

$

23,702

Marketable securities

145,036

180,719

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

3,443

 

4,478

Total current assets

 

189,397

 

208,899

Property and equipment, net

 

1,380

 

1,480

Operating lease right-of-use assets

2,220

2,495

Other assets

 

2,771

 

2,771

Total assets

$

195,768

$

215,645

Liabilities and stockholders equity

Current liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

681

$

374

Operating lease liabilities, current

908

1,015

Other current liabilities

17,821

 

15,160

Total current liabilities

19,410

 

16,549

Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion

1,383

1,550

Total liabilities

20,793

 

18,099

Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)

Stockholders equity:

Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022; no shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022.

Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 490,000,000 shares authorized as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022; 40,696,563 and 40,601,648 shares issued as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively; 40,438,320 and 40,287,097 shares outstanding as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.

3

 

3

Additional paid-in capital

413,213

 

408,333

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

(978)

(1,813)

Accumulated deficit

(237,263)

 

(208,977)

Total stockholders equity

174,975

 

197,546

Total liabilities and stockholders equity

$

195,768

$

215,645

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

3

Table of Contents

Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(Unaudited)

(Amounts in thousands, except for share and per share amounts)

Three Months Ended March 31, 

2023

    

2022

Operating expenses:

Research and development

    

$

22,826

    

$

16,009

General and administrative

 

6,776

7,245

Total operating expenses

 

29,602

23,254

Loss from operations

 

(29,602)

(23,254)

Other income:

 

  

Interest income

 

1,305

218

Other income:

11

6

Total other income

 

1,316

224

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$

(28,286)

$

(23,030)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

$

(0.70)

$

(0.58)

Weighted average shares used to compute net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

40,354,493

39,834,619

Three Months Ended March 31, 

2023

    

2022

Net loss

$

(28,286)

$

(23,030)

Other comprehensive gain (loss):

Net unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities

835

(1,477)

Total comprehensive loss

$

(27,451)

$

(24,507)

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

4

Table of Contents

Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Unaudited)

(Amounts in thousands, except for share amounts)

Accumulated

Additional

Other

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

(Loss) Gain

Deficit

    

Equity

Balances at December 31, 2022

40,287,097

$

3

$

408,333

$

(1,813)

$

(208,977)

$

197,546

Vesting of early exercised stock options

 

6,990

 

 

30

 

 

30

Vesting of restricted stock awards

 

49,318

 

 

 

 

Exercise of stock options

94,915

220

220

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

4,515

 

 

4,515

Employee stock purchase plan expense

 

 

 

115

 

 

115

Net unrealized gain on marketable securities

835

835

Net loss

(28,286)

(28,286)

Balances at March 31, 2023

 

40,438,320

 

$

3

 

$

413,213

 

$

(978)

$

(237,263)

 

$

174,975

Accumulated

Additional

Other

Total

Common Stock

Paid-in

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders'

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Loss

Deficit

    

Equity

Balances at December 31, 2021

39,797,263

$

3

$

388,904

$

(149)

$

(104,190)

$

284,568

Vesting of early exercised stock options

 

6,989

 

 

31

 

 

31

Vesting of restricted stock awards

 

49,318

 

 

 

 

Exercise of stock options

15,755

33

33

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

 

4,874

 

 

4,874

Employee stock purchase plan expense

 

 

 

91

 

 

91

Net unrealized loss on marketable securities

(1,477)

(1,477)

Net loss

(23,030)

(23,030)

Balances at March 31, 2022

 

39,869,325

 

$

3

 

$

393,933

 

$

(1,626)

$

(127,220)

 

$

265,090

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

5

Table of Contents

Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(unaudited)

(Amounts in thousands)

Three Months Ended March 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

Cash flows from operating activities:

Net loss

$

(28,286)

$

(23,030)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

Depreciation and amortization expense

 

100

 

84

Non-cash lease expense

327

323

Premium amortization and discount accretion on marketable securities, net

(869)

6

Stock-based compensation expense, including employee stock purchase plan expense

 

4,630

 

4,965

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

1,035

 

172

Other assets

(240)

Accounts payable

307

245

Other current liabilities

 

2,691

 

(113)

Operating lease liabilities

(326)

(315)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(20,391)

 

(17,903)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

 

Purchase of equipment

 

 

(30)

Maturities of marketable securities

61,760

148,750

Purchases of marketable securities

(24,373)

(123,153)

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

37,387

 

25,567

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

 

Proceeds from exercise of stock options

220

33

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

220

 

33

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

17,216

 

7,697

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

23,702

 

13,812

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

 

$

40,918

$

21,509

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities:

Reclassification of prepaid expenses and other current liabilities into other assets

$

$

2,014

See accompanying notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements.

6

Table of Contents

Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to condensed consolidated financial statements

(Unaudited)

1.

Nature of the Business and Basis of Presentation

Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Olema” or the “Company”) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of next-generation targeted therapies for women’s cancers. The Company is initially focused on developing therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. The Company’s wholly-owned, lead product candidate, OP-1250, is a novel oral therapy with combined activity as both a complete estrogen receptor (“ER”) antagonist (“CERAN”) and a selective ER degrader (“SERD”). It is currently being evaluated as a single agent in an ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical study, and in Phase 1b/2 clinical studies in combination with palbociclib, ribociclib, and alpelisib, in patients with recurrent, locally advanced or metastatic estrogen receptor-positive (“ER+”), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (“HER2-”) breast cancer.

The Company is located in San Francisco, California and was incorporated in Delaware on August 7, 2006 under the legal name of CombiThera, Inc. and on March 25, 2009 was renamed Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The Company’s principal operations are based in San Francisco, California, and has operations in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Olema Oncology Australia Pty Ltd was incorporated on January 6, 2021 and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company (collectively with Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc. referred to as “Olema” or the “Company” herein). It operates in one business segment and therefore has only one reportable segment. The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties common to early-stage companies in the biopharmaceutical industry, including, but not limited to, successful discovery and development of its product candidates, development by competitors of new technological innovations, dependence on key personnel, the ability to attract and retain qualified employees, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with governmental regulations, the impact of geopolitical and macroeconomic events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia and related sanctions, recent and potential future bank failures and financial instability, the ability to secure additional capital to fund operations and commercial success of its product candidates. OP-1250 and any future product candidates the Company may develop will require extensive nonclinical and clinical testing and regulatory approval prior to commercialization. These efforts require significant amounts of additional capital, adequate personnel, and infrastructure and extensive compliance-reporting capabilities. Even if the Company’s product development efforts are successful, it is uncertain when, if ever, the Company will realize significant revenue from product sales.

Liquidity

The Company had $186.0 million of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities at March 31, 2023, which management believes is sufficient to fund its operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2025.

Impact of Geopolitical and Macroeconomic Events

Global economic and business activities continue to face widespread geopolitical and macroeconomic uncertainties, including labor shortages, inflation and monetary supply shifts, bank failures and related financial market risks and instability, recession risks, as well as potential disruptions from the Russia-Ukraine conflict, which has resulted in volatility in the U.S. and global financial markets and which has led to, and may continue to lead to, additional disruptions to trade, commerce, pricing stability, credit availability and supply chain continuity globally. The extent of the impact of these factors on the Company’s operational and financial performance, including its ability to execute its business strategies and initiatives in the expected time frame, will depend on future developments, which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. Any continued or renewed disruption resulting from these factors could negatively impact the Company’s business. The Company

7

Table of Contents

continues to monitor the impact of these geopolitical and macroeconomic factors on its results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

2.

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

The accompanying interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting, and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Olema Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiary, Olema Oncology Australia Pty Ltd. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.

Unaudited Interim Financial Information

The interim condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2023, and the statements of operations and comprehensive loss, stockholders’ equity and cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022 are unaudited. The unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal and recurring nature that are necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements included in this report. The financial data and the other information disclosed in these notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements related to the three-month periods are also unaudited. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023 or for any other future annual or interim period. The condensed consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s Form 10-K as filed with the SEC on March 9, 2023 (the “Annual Report”).

Use of Estimates

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of the condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Significant areas that require management’s estimates include accruals of research and development expenses, including accrual of research contract costs, stock-based compensation assumptions, including the fair value of common stock. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates and judgments, which are based on historical and anticipated results and trends and on various other assumptions that management believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents are defined as short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase. Cash deposits are all in reputable financial institutions in the United States as of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022. Cash and cash equivalents consisted of cash on deposit with U.S. banks, including the Company’s bank account for its Australia subsidiary, denominated in U.S. dollars and Australian dollars and investments in interest bearing money market funds.

8

Table of Contents

Marketable Securities

All marketable securities have been classified as “available-for-sale” and are carried at estimated fair value as determined based upon quoted market prices or pricing models for similar securities. Management determines the appropriate classification of its investments at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date. Unrealized gains and losses are excluded from net loss and are reported as a component of comprehensive loss. Realized gains and losses and declines in fair value judged to be other than temporary, if any, on available-for-sale securities are included in interest income. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific-identification method. Interest earned on marketable securities is included in interest income.

The Company periodically assesses its available-for-sale marketable securities for other-than-temporary impairment. For debt securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company first considers its intent to sell, or whether it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the debt securities before recovery of their amortized cost basis. If either of these criteria are met, the amortized cost basis of such debt securities is written down to fair value through other expense.

For debt securities in an unrealized loss position that do not meet the aforementioned criteria, the Company assesses whether the decline in the fair value of such debt securities has resulted from credit losses or other factors. The Company considers the extent to which fair value is less than amortized cost, any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency, and any adverse conditions specifically related to the securities, among other factors. If this assessment indicates that a credit loss may exist, the Company then compares the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from such securities to their amortized cost basis. If the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a credit loss exists and an allowance for credit losses is recorded through other expense, limited by the amount that the fair value is less than the amortized cost basis. Any additional impairment not recorded through an allowance for credit losses is recognized in other comprehensive loss. The Company has not recorded any impairments for its marketable securities.

Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentration of credit risk consist of cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities. The Company invests in a variety of financial instruments and, by its policy, limits these financial instruments to high credit quality securities issued by the U.S. government, U.S. government-sponsored agencies and highly rated banks and corporations, subject to certain concentration limits. The Company’s cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities are held by financial institutions in the United States that management believes are of high credit quality. Amounts on deposit with individual banking institutions may at times exceed the limits insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”); however, the Company has not experienced any losses on such deposits.

The Company’s future results of operations involve a number of other risks and uncertainties. Factors that could affect the Company’s future operating results and cause actual results to vary materially from expectations include, but are not limited to, uncertainty of results of clinical trials and reaching milestones, uncertainty of regulatory approval of the Company’s current and potential future product candidates, uncertainty of market acceptance of the Company’s product candidates, competition from substitute products and larger companies, securing and protecting proprietary technology, strategic relationships, dependence on key individuals or sole-source suppliers, and geopolitical and macroeconomic factors.

9

Table of Contents

The Company’s product candidates require approvals from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and comparable foreign regulatory agencies prior to commercial sales in their respective jurisdictions. There can be no assurance that any product candidates will receive the necessary approvals. If the Company were denied approval, approval was delayed or the Company was unable to maintain approval for any product candidate, it could have a materially adverse impact on the Company.

Leases

The Company adopted Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) 2016-12, Leases, Topic 842, (“Topic 842”) as of January 1, 2021. Under Topic 842, lessees are required to recognize for all leases (with the exception of short-term leases) at the commencement date: (1) a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and (2) a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

At the inception of an arrangement, the Company determines if an arrangement is, or contains, a lease based on the facts and circumstances present in that arrangement. Lease classification, recognition, and measurement are then determined at the lease commencement date. For arrangements that contain a lease, the Company (i) identifies lease and non-lease components, (ii) determines the consideration in the contract, (iii) determines whether the lease is an operating or finance lease; and (iv) recognizes lease ROU assets and liabilities. Lease liabilities and their corresponding ROU assets are recorded based on the present value of future lease payments over the expected lease term. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable and as such, the Company uses the incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the lease commencement date, which represents an internally developed rate that would be incurred to borrow, on a collateralized basis, over a similar term, an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment.

Most leases include options to renew and, or terminate the lease, which can impact the lease term. The exercise of these options is at the Company’s discretion. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise such options. For any lease modification, the Company reassesses the lease classification, remeasures the related lease liability using an updated discount rate that reflects the modified lease term, and adjusts the related ROU asset under the lease modification guidance under Topic 842.

The Company has operating leases for its research and development and office facilities. Fixed lease payments on operating leases are recognized over the expected term of the lease on a straight-line basis. Variable lease expenses that are not considered fixed are recognized as incurred. Fixed and variable lease expense on operating leases is recognized within operating expenses within our condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

The Company elected to not apply the recognition requirements of Topic 842 to short-term leases with terms of 12 months or less. Additional information and disclosures required by Topic 842 are contained in Note 11 “Lease” in the Annual Report.

Research and Development Costs

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Research and development expenses consist of costs incurred to discover, research and develop product candidates. These costs are recorded within research and development expenses in the condensed consolidated  statements of operations and include personnel expenses, stock-based compensation expenses, allocated general and administrative expenses, and external costs including fees paid to consultants and CROs and contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”), in connection with nonclinical studies and clinical trials, and other related clinical trial fees, such as for investigator fees, patient screening, laboratory work, clinical trial database management, clinical trial material management

10

Table of Contents

and statistical compilation and analysis. Non-refundable prepayments for goods or services that will be used or rendered for future research and development activities are recorded as prepaid expenses and other current assets. Such amounts are recognized as an expense as the goods are delivered or the related services are performed.

Costs incurred in obtaining technology licenses that do not meet the definition of a business are charged immediately to research and development expense if the technology licensed has not reached technological feasibility and has no alternative future uses.

Reimbursements of certain costs associated with research activities performed under the agreement with Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc. (“Novartis”) are recorded as a reduction of research and development expenses and as a receivable due from Novartis, which is recorded under prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements, as described in Note 10, Commitments and Contingencies – Clinical Collaboration and Supply Agreement.

Research Contract Costs and Accruals

The Company has from time to time entered into various research and development and other agreements with commercial firms, researchers, universities and others for provisions of goods and services. These agreements are generally cancelable, and the related costs are recorded as research and development expenses as incurred.

The Company records accruals for estimated ongoing research and development costs. When evaluating the adequacy of the accrued liabilities, the Company analyzes progress of the projects, studies or clinical trials, including the phase or completion of events, invoices received and contracted costs. Judgments and estimates are made in determining the accrued balances at the end of any reporting period. Actual results could differ materially from the Company’s estimates. The Company’s historical accrual estimates have not been materially different from the actual costs.

Net Loss Per Common Share

Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing the net loss per common share by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period without consideration of common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by adjusting net loss to reallocate undistributed earnings based on the potential impact of dilutive securities, and by dividing the diluted net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, including potential dilutive common shares. For purpose of this calculation, outstanding stock options, including unvested early exercised options, unvested restricted stock awards, unvested performance-based restricted stock unit awards, contingently issuable common stock related to the 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”) are considered potential dilutive common shares. Since the Company was in a loss position for all periods presented, basic net loss per share is the same as diluted net loss per share for all periods as the inclusion of all potential common shares outstanding would have been anti-dilutive.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

There were no new accounting pronouncements that were relevant to the Company as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

11

Table of Contents

3.

Fair Value Measurement

The Company assesses the fair value of financial instruments based on the provisions of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements. ASC 820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. The standard describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:

Level 1 — Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities accessible to the reporting entity at the measurement date.
Level 2 — Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity that are significant to determining the fair value of the assets or liabilities, including pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies and similar techniques.

March 31, 2023

(in thousands)

    

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Total

Financial Assets

Cash

$

6,688

$

$

$

6,688

Money market funds

31,284

31,284

Commercial paper

 

76,463

76,463

U.S. government treasury bills

57,697

57,697

Government-sponsored enterprise securities

 

13,876

13,876

Total

$

95,669

$

90,339

$

$

186,008

 

March 31, 2023

    

    

Gross

    

Gross

    

Amortized

Unrealized

Unrealized

Estimated

(in thousands)

    

Cost

Gains

Losses

Fair Value

Financial Assets

Cash and cash equivalents

$

40,970

$

1

$

$

40,971

Short-term marketable securities (<12 months to maturity)

146,016

4

(983)

145,037

Total

$

186,986

$

5

$

(983)

$

186,008

The Company considers its marketable securities with maturities beyond one year as current assets, based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. The Company considers its investment portfolio of marketable securities to be available-for-sale. As of March 31, 2023, the Company does not have any marketable securities with maturities beyond one year.

The Company periodically reviews its available-for-sale marketable securities for other-than-temporary impairment. The Company considers factors such as the duration, severity and the reason for the decline in value, the potential recovery period and its intent to sell. For debt securities, the Company also considers whether (i) it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the debt securities before recovery of their amortized cost basis, and (ii) the amortized cost basis cannot be recovered as a result of credit losses.

12

Table of Contents

There were 23 marketable securities that have been in a consecutive loss position for more than 12 months as of March 31, 2023. They had $0.8 million unrealized loss with a fair value of $63.7 million as of March 31, 2023. The Company does not believe that the total unrealized losses of $1.0 million as of March 31, 2023 are credit-related but are rather a reflection of current market yields and/or current marketplace bid/ask spreads. During the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, the Company did not recognize any other-than-temporary impairment loss. As of March 31, 2023, there was no allowance for losses on available-for-sale debt securities attributable to credit risk.

As of March 31, 2023, all of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents consisted of cash on deposit with U.S. banks denominated in U.S. dollars and Australian dollars.

4. Property and Equipment, net

Property and equipment, net consisted of the following (in thousands):

March 31, 

December 31, 

2023

2022

Lab equipment

    

$

2,002

    

$

2,002

Computer equipment

59

59

Property and equipment, gross

2,061

2,061

Less: Accumulated depreciation

 

 

(681)

(581)

Property and equipment, net

 

$

1,380

$

1,480

5.

Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consisted of the following (in thousands):

March 31, 

December 31, 

2023

2022

Prepaid insurance

$

1,254

$

1,738

Reimbursable research and development costs from a collaboration partner

976

1,387

Prepaid clinical development costs

439

506

Prepaid subscriptions and licenses

400

399

Interest receivable

302

319

Other

 

 

72

129

Total

 

$

3,443

$

4,478

6.

Other Current Liabilities

Other current liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):

March 31, 

December 31, 

2023

2022

Accrued research and development related costs

$

12,080

$

9,105

Accrued payroll related costs

2,741

296

Accrued professional fees

1,758

1,091

Accrued employee bonuses

1,082

4,518

Accrued taxes

109

68

Early exercise of unvested stock options

51

82

Total

 

$

17,821

$

15,160

13

Table of Contents

7. Stock-Based Compensation

In 2014, the Company’s Board of Directors and stockholders approved and adopted the Company’s 2014 Stock Plan (the “2014 Plan”). The 2014 Plan permitted the grant of options and restricted stock awards (including restricted stock purchase rights and restricted stock bonus awards). The 2014 Plan was terminated on the date the Company’s 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2020 Plan”), which is described below, became effective, and since that date, no additional awards have been or will be made pursuant to the 2014 Plan. However, any outstanding awards granted under the 2014 Plan will remain outstanding, subject to the terms of the 2014 Plan award agreements, until such outstanding options are exercised or until any awards terminate or expire by their terms.

In 2020, the Company’s Board of Directors and stockholders approved and adopted the 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2020 Plan”). The 2020 Plan permits the grant of options, restricted stock awards, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock unit awards, performance awards, and other awards. The maximum number of shares of common stock that may be issued under the 2020 Plan will not exceed 6,494,510 shares of the Company’s common stock, which is the sum of (i) 2,152,080 new shares, plus (ii) an additional number of shares not to exceed 4,342,430 shares, consisting of any shares of the Company’s common stock subject to outstanding stock options or other stock awards granted under the Company’s 2014 Plan that, on or after the 2020 Plan becomes effective, terminate or expire prior to exercise or settlement; are not issued because the award is settled in cash; are forfeited because of the failure to vest; or are reacquired or withheld (or not issued) to satisfy a tax withholding obligation or the purchase or exercise price. In addition, the number of shares of the Company’s common stock reserved for issuance under the 2020 Plan automatically increases on January 1 of each year for a period of ten years, beginning on January 1, 2021 and continuing through January 1, 2030, in an amount equal to the lesser of (1) 5% of the total number of shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding on December 31 of the immediately preceding year, or (2) a lesser number of shares determined by the Company’s Board of Directors no later than December 31 of the immediately preceding year.

In 2022, the Company’s Board of Directors approved and adopted the 2022 Inducement Plan (the “2022 Inducement Plan”). Under the 2022 Inducement Plan, initially 2,000,000 shares of common stock were reserved for issuance. The 2022 Inducement Plan permits the grant of options, restricted stock awards, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock unit awards, performance awards, and other awards.

The exercise price for each option and stock appreciation right shall be established at the discretion of the Board, provided that the exercise price of a stock option will not be less than 100% of the fair market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. Specific vesting for stock options and stock appreciation rights is service related and determined in each award agreement, where stock options and stock appreciation rights are fully vested at the grant date or follow a graded vesting schedule. Stock options and stock appreciation rights granted under the plans generally expire ten years after the date of grant.

Stock Option Valuation

The fair value of stock option grants is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Company lacks company-specific historical and implied volatility information. Therefore, it estimated its expected stock volatility based on the historical volatility of a publicly traded set of peer companies in addition to its own historical volatility. For options with service-based vesting conditions, the expected term of the Company’s stock options has been determined utilizing the “simplified” method for awards that qualify as “plain-vanilla” options. The expected term of stock options granted to nonemployees is equal to the contractual term of the option award. The risk-free interest rate is determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant of the award for time periods approximately equal to the expected term of the award. Expected dividend yield is 0% since the Company has never paid cash dividends and does not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

14

Table of Contents

The assumptions that the Company used to determine the estimated grant-date fair value of stock options granted to employees and directors under the 2020 Plan and the 2022 Inducement Plan were as follows, presented as a weighted average:

March 31, 

March 31, 

2023

2022

Risk-free interest rate

    

3.48%

    

1.69%

Expected term (in years)

6.08

6.06

Expected volatility

87.22%

79.17%

Expected dividend yield

 

 

Stock Option Activity

The following table summarizes the stock option activity under the 2014 Plan, the 2020 Plan and the 2022 Inducement Plan:

Weighted

Weighted

Average

Average

Remaining

Number of

Exercise

Contractual

Aggregate

Shares

Price

Term

Intrinsic Value

(in years)

(in thousands)

Outstanding as of December 31, 2022

    

8,384,858

    

$

8.59

    

8.30

    

$

262

Granted

1,989,728

4.79

Exercised(1)

(101,905)

2.47

Forfeited

(436,837)

3.71

Outstanding as of March 31, 2023(2)

9,835,844

$

8.10

8.27

$

2,029

Options vested and exercisable as of March 31, 2023

4,105,812

$

9.70

7.46

$

1,117

Options expected to vest as of March 31, 2023

5,730,032

$

6.96

8.86

$

912

(1)Exercised amount includes vesting of early exercised options.
(2)Balance as of March 31, 2023 includes 11,650 unvested early exercised stock options.

Early Exercise of Stock Options

The terms of the 2014 Plan permit certain option holders to exercise options before their options are vested, subject to certain limitations. The early exercised options are subject to the same vesting provisions in the original stock option awards. Shares issued as a result of early exercise that have not vested are subject to repurchase by the Company upon termination of the purchaser’s employment, at the price paid by the purchaser. Such shares are not deemed to be outstanding for accounting purposes until they vest and are therefore excluded from shares outstanding and from basic and diluted net loss per share until the repurchase right lapses and the shares are no longer subject to the repurchase feature. A liability is recognized related to the cash proceeds of the unvested options and is reclassified into common stock and additional paid-in capital as the shares vest and the repurchase right lapses. Accordingly, the Company has recorded the unvested portion of the exercise proceeds of $0.1 million in other current liabilities as of March 31, 2023.

15

Table of Contents

Restricted Stock Awards

The following table summarizes the restricted stock activity under the 2014 Plan during the three months ended March 31, 2023:

Number of Shares

Grant Date Fair Value

Unvested restricted stock as of December 31, 2022

    

295,911

    

$

2.40

Granted

Vested

(49,318)

2.40

Forfeited

Unvested restricted stock as of March 31, 2023

 

246,593

$

2.40

Performance-Based Restricted Stock Unit Awards

In November 2022, the Company granted to certain employees 710,000 shares of performance-based restricted stock unit awards (the “PSUs”) under the 2020 Plan as consideration for services subject to performance conditions with a fair value based on the closing price of the underlying common stock on the date of grant. Pursuant to the terms of the PSUs, 65% of each PSU vests upon certification by the Compensation Committee of the Company of achieving a pre-determined performance goal by June 30, 2024, and 35% of each PSU vests upon certification by the Compensation Committee of the Company of achieving a pre-determined performance goal by June 30, 2024.

Expense recognition for PSUs commences when it is determined that attainment of the performance goal is probable or met. As of March 31, 2023, it was determined that the performance goals were not yet met, and therefore, the Company recorded zero stock-based compensation expense related to the PSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan

In 2020, the Company’s Board of Directors and stockholders approved and adopted the ESPP. The ESPP permits eligible employees who elect to participate in an offering under the ESPP to have up to 15% of their eligible earnings withheld, subject to certain limitations, to purchase shares of common stock pursuant to the ESPP. The price of the common stock purchased under the ESPP is equal to the lesser of (i) 85% of the fair market value of a share of the Company’s common stock on the first day of an offering; or (ii) 85% of the fair market value of a share of the Company’s common stock on the date of purchase. Each offering period is not to exceed 27 months and will include one or more purchase periods (each a “Purchase Period”) as approved by the Company’s Board of Directors in the offering. The current offering period will consist of two (2) six-month Purchase Periods during which payroll deductions of the participants are accumulated under the ESPP. A total of 430,416 shares of common stock were initially reserved for issuance pursuant to the ESPP.

The ESPP is a compensatory plan as defined by the authoritative guidance for stock-based compensation. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock offered under the ESPP. Stock-based compensation expense related to the ESPP was $0.1 million and $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

16

Table of Contents

Stock-Based Compensation Expense

Stock-based compensation expense related to awards granted under the 2014 Plan, the 2020 Plan, the ESPP and the 2022 Inducement Plan was classified in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss as follows (in thousands):

Three Months Ended March 31, 

2023

2022

Research and development

    

$

3,088

    

$

3,067

General and administrative

 

 

1,542

1,898

Total

 

$

4,630

$

4,965

8.

Net Loss Per Share

Net Loss Per Share

Basic and diluted net loss per share was calculated as follows (in thousands, except share and per share amounts):

Three Months Ended March 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

Numerator:

Net loss

$

(28,286)

$

(23,030)

Denominator:

 

  

 

  

Weighted average shares used to compute net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

 

40,354,493

 

39,834,619

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

$

(0.70)

$

(0.58)

The potentially dilutive shares that were excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share because their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented are as follows:

Three Months Ended March 31, 

2023

2022

Unvested restricted common stock

 

246,593

 

443,867

Unvested performance-based restricted stock unit awards outstanding

710,000

Options to purchase common stock

 

9,835,844

 

8,368,353

Employee stock purchase plan contingently issuable

247,993

110,877

11,040,430

 

8,923,097

Included in the potentially dilutive options to purchase common stock are 11,650 unvested stock options that were early exercised by an employee and a non-employee in September 2020 (see Note 7, “Stock-Based Compensation”). The Company determined the early exercises to be non-substantive as the shares were subject to repurchase rights. Accordingly, the Company has excluded these shares from the calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022.

9.

Lease

The Company leases certain of its facilities under non-cancellable operating leases expiring at various dates through 2026.

On June 1, 2013, the Company entered into a management services agreement with MandalMed, Inc. (“MandalMed”) (the “MandalMed Services Agreement”) to have access to and use a portion of approximately

17

Table of Contents

5,762 square feet of space for the use of laboratory benches, lab equipment, office space, and administrative and facilities services. The Company subsequently entered into six amendments to extend the agreement term to November 2023. As part of the sixth amendment, the Company gained access to use additional space of approximately 2,130 square feet (the “Additional Space”) for a three year period commencing on December 1, 2020 and ending on November 30, 2023. According to the terms of the MandalMed Services Agreement, the Company paid a security deposit of less than $0.1 million and is required to pay monthly rent and common area charges.

On August 27, 2020, the Company entered into a lease agreement with 512 2nd Street LLC to lease approximately 3,500 square feet of office space in San Francisco, California (the “Office Space Lease Agreement”). The Office Space Lease Agreement is for a period of two years commencing on September 1, 2020 and ending August 31, 2022. In April 2022, the Company extended the Office Space Lease Agreement up to August 31, 2023 and has one year renewal option to extend the term up to August 31, 2024. According to the terms of the Office Space Lease Agreement, the Company paid a $0.1 million security deposit and is required to pay monthly rent and common area charges. The extension of the lease term was accounted for as a modification under Topic 842 and the Company recorded additional ROU asset and lease liability of $0.3 million and $0.3 million, respectively, in the condensed consolidated financial statements.

On December 15, 2020, the Company entered into a lease agreement with Tennieh LLC to lease approximately 9,800 square feet of office space in San Francisco, California (the “Laboratory Lease Agreement”). The Laboratory Lease Agreement is for a period of five years commencing approximately February 1, 2021 and ending January 31, 2026. According to the terms of the Laboratory Lease Agreement, the Company paid a $0.4 million security deposit and is required to pay monthly rent and common area charges.

The following table summarizes total lease expense during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively (in thousands):

Three Months Ended March 31

2023

2022

Straight-line operating lease expense

     

$

327

$

322

Short-term lease expense

 

 

53

 

60

Variable lease expense

 

 

10

 

10

Total operating lease expense

 

$

390

$

392

The following table summarizes supplemental cash flow information during the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively (in thousands):

Three Months Ended March 31

2023

2022

Cash paid for amounts included measurement of lease liabilities:

Operating cash flows from operating leases

     

$

326

$

315

18

Table of Contents

The following table summarizes the Company’s future minimum lease payments and reconciliation of lease liabilities as of March 31, 2023 (in thousands):

Years Ended December 31,

2023 (from April 2023)

     

$

860

2024

 

 

799

2025

 

 

822

2026

69

Total future minimum lease payments

 

2,550

Less: Interest

(259)

Total lease liabilities at present value

2,291

Lease liabilities, current

908

Lease liabilities, non-current

$

1,383

The following table summarizes lease term and discount rate as of March 31, 2023:

Three Months Ended March 31

2023

2022

Weighted-average remaining lease term (years)

     

2.57

3.46

Weighted-average discount rate

 

8.70%

8.65%

10.

Commitments and Contingencies

Clinical Collaboration and Supply Agreement

On July 22, 2020, the Company entered into a non-exclusive clinical collaboration and supply agreement with Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc. (“Novartis”) and on January 13, 2022, the Company entered into the amended and restated clinical collaboration and supply agreement with Novartis (as amended and restated, the “Novartis Agreement”). The collaboration is focused on the evaluation of the safety, tolerability and efficacy of OP-1250 in combination with Novartis’ proprietary CDK4/6 inhibitor Kisqali® (ribociclib) and/or Novartis’ proprietary phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (“PI3Ka”) Inhibitor Piqray® (alpelisib) (collectively the “Novartis Study Drugs”) as part of the Company’s planned Phase 1b clinical study of OP-1250 in patients with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The Company will be responsible for the conduct of the clinical trials for the combined therapies in accordance with a mutually agreed development plan. As part of the collaboration, the parties granted to each other a non-exclusive, royalty- free license under certain of the parties’ respective background patent rights and other technology to use the parties’ respective study drugs in research and development, solely to the extent reasonably needed for the other party’s activities in the collaboration. All inventions and data developed in the performance of the clinical trials for the combined therapies (other than those specific to each component study drug), will be jointly owned by the parties.

The Company is responsible for manufacturing, packaging and labeling OP-1250, and for packaging and labeling all drugs used in the clinical trials for the combined therapies (other than the Novartis Study Drugs). Novartis is responsible for manufacturing and delivering to the Company the Novartis Study Drugs in such quantities as reasonably needed for the clinical trials for the combined therapies. In accordance with an agreed budget, subject to certain thresholds, Novartis will reimburse the Company for a majority of the direct outside costs that the Company incurs related to conducting the activities under the agreed development plan in conducting the clinical trials for the combined therapies.

The Novartis Agreement will terminate upon completion of all activities outlined in the development plan and the relevant protocols. Either party may terminate the Novartis Agreement for the uncured material breach or insolvency of the other party, if it reasonably deems it necessary in order to protect the safety, health or welfare of subjects enrolled in the clinical trials for the combined therapies due to the existence of a material safety issue, or in certain circumstances for an unresolved clinical hold with respect to either the Novartis Study Drugs

19

Table of Contents

or OP-1250. In addition, Novartis may terminate the Novartis Agreement if certain disputes between the parties are not resolved after following the applicable dispute resolution procedures, and the Company may terminate the Novartis Agreement in the event the Company terminates all clinical trials of the combined therapies other than due to a material safety issue or upon a clinical hold.

Costs associated with research activities performed under the agreement are included in research and development expenses in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements, with any reimbursable costs from Novartis reflected as a reduction of such expenses. For the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, costs reimbursable from Novartis were $0.5 million and $0 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2023, the receivable due from Novartis was $1.0 million, which is recorded under prepaid expenses and other current assets in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.

Clinical Trial Agreement

In November 2020, the Company entered into a non-exclusive clinical trial agreement with Pfizer Inc. (“Pfizer”) (the “Pfizer Agreement”), to evaluate the safety and tolerability of OP-1250 in combination with Pfizer’s proprietary CDK4/6 inhibitor IBRANCE® (palbociclib) in patients with recurrent, locally advanced or metastatic ER+, HER2  breast cancer in a clinical trial. Under the terms of the non-exclusive agreement, the Company will be responsible for conducting the clinical trial for the combined therapies and Pfizer is responsible for supplying IBRANCE® to the Company at no cost to the Company. As part of the collaboration, the parties granted to each other a non-exclusive, royalty-free license under certain of the parties’ respective patent rights in the combination of IBRANCE® and OP-1250 to use the parties’ respective study drugs in research and development, solely to the extent reasonably needed for the other party’s activities in the collaboration. All inventions and data developed in the performance of the clinical trials for the combined therapies (other than those specific to each component study drug), will be jointly owned by the parties.

The Company is responsible for manufacturing, packaging and labeling OP-1250, and for packaging and labeling all drugs used in the clinical trials for the combined therapies (other than IBRANCE® (palbociclib)). Pfizer is responsible for manufacturing and delivering to us IBRANCE® (palbociclib) in such quantities as reasonably needed for the clinical trials for the combined therapies.

The Pfizer Agreement will terminate upon completion of all activities outlined in the study plan and the relevant protocols. Either party may terminate the Pfizer Agreement for the uncured material breach or insolvency of the other party, if it reasonably deems it necessary in order to protect the safety, health or welfare of subjects enrolled in the clinical trials for the combined therapies due to the existence of a material safety issue, or in certain circumstances for an unresolved clinical hold with respect to either the IBRANCE® (palbociclib) or OP-1250. In addition, either party may terminate the Pfizer Agreement if certain disputes between the parties are not resolved after following the applicable dispute resolution procedures or if either party determines to discontinue clinical development for medical, scientific, legal or other reasons.

The Pfizer Agreement does not grant any right of first negotiation to participate in future clinical trials, and each of the parties retains all rights and ability to evaluate their respective compounds. Costs incurred in connection to the Pfizer Agreement are included in the research and development expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three months ended March 31, 2023, and 2022.

License Agreement

In June 2022, the Company entered into an exclusive global license agreement with Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited (“Aurigene”) to research, develop and commercialize novel small molecule inhibitors of an undisclosed oncology target (“the Aurigene Agreement”).

Under the terms of the Aurigene Agreement, Aurigene will provide to the Company an exclusive license to its portfolio of novel small molecule inhibitors of the target. Financial terms of the Aurigene Agreement include a

20

Table of Contents

$8.0 million upfront payment for rights to a pre-existing Aurigene program and potential future milestone payments of up to $60.0 million in clinical development and regulatory milestones, and up to $370.0 million in commercial milestones. Aurigene is also eligible to receive mid-single digits to the low double digits royalties on product sales, if any. During the research term, the Company will contribute funding to Aurigene to facilitate Aurigene’s ongoing discovery efforts. The Company and Aurigene will jointly direct further preclinical work and, if successful, the Company will lead clinical development as well as regulatory and commercial activities. The Company and Aurigene jointly own collaboration compounds and rights to any inventions made during the research term.  

The term of the Aurigene Agreement will continue until the expiration of the last-to-expire of all payment obligations with respect to all licensed products thereunder, unless terminated earlier in accordance with the terms of the Aurigene Agreement. The Aurigene Agreement may be terminated (a) by the Company for convenience, in its sole discretion, upon prior written notice to Aurigene, (b) by either the Company or Aurigene in connection with the other party’s uncured material breach or (c) by either the Company or Aurigene in connection with the insolvency of the other party.

The $8.0 million upfront payment was incurred in June 2022 and recorded as research and development expense in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Costs incurred and milestones payments due to Aurigene prior to regulatory approval are recognized as research and development expenses in the period incurred. Payments due to Aurigene upon or subsequent to regulatory approval will be accrued as a provision to cost of sales in the period when achievement of respective milestone target is probable. As of March 31, 2023, it was determined that it is not probable to achieve any of the milestone target, and therefore, the Company recorded zero expense related to the milestone for the three months ended March 31, 2023.

Management Services Agreements

The Company conducts research and development programs internally and through third parties that include, among others, arrangements with vendors, consultants, CMOs, and CROs. The Company has contractual arrangements in the normal course of business with these parties, however, the contracts with these parties are cancelable generally on reasonable notice within one year and the Company’s obligations under these contracts are primarily based on services performed through termination dates plus certain cancelation charges, if any, as defined in each of the respective agreements. In addition, these agreements may, from time to time, be subjected to amendments as a result of any change orders executed by the parties. As of March 31, 2023, the Company did not have material contractual commitments with respect to these arrangements.

Contingencies

From time to time, the Company may have certain contingent liabilities that arise in the ordinary course of business. The Company accrues a liability for such matters when it is probable that future expenditures will be made, and such expenditures can be reasonably estimated. For all periods presented, the Company was not a party to any pending material litigation or other material legal proceedings.

Indemnification Agreements

In the ordinary course of business, the Company may provide indemnification of varying scope and terms to vendors, lessors, business partners and other parties with respect to certain matters including, but not limited to, losses arising out of breach of such agreements or from intellectual property infringement claims made by third parties. In addition, the Company has entered into indemnification agreements with members of its Board of Directors and executive officers that will require the Company, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is, in many cases, unlimited. As of March 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company had not incurred any material costs as a result of such indemnifications.

21

Table of Contents

Item 2.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes that are included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the audited financial statements and related notes that are included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, on March 9, 2023, or our Annual Report on Form 10-K.

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Forward-looking statements are identified by words such as “believe,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “should,” “plan,” “expect,” “predict,” “could,” “potentially” or the negative of these terms or similar expressions. You should read these statements carefully because they discuss future expectations, contain projections of future results of operations or financial condition, or state other “forward-looking” information. These statements relate to our future plans, objectives, expectations, intentions and financial performance and the assumptions that underlie these statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, those discussed in this report in Part II, Item 1A — “Risk Factors,” and elsewhere in this report. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements, like all statements in this report, speak only as of their date, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise these statements in light of future developments. We caution investors that our business and financial performance are subject to substantial risks and uncertainties. In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject, and these statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. While we believe that such information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of next generation targeted therapies for women’s cancers. Our team has spent the past decade characterizing the structure and function of the estrogen receptor, or ER, a key driver of breast cancer in approximately 75% of patients, in order to develop more potent, oral therapies that completely inactivate this signaling pathway. Our lead product candidate, OP-1250, is a novel oral therapy with combined activity as both a complete ER antagonist, or CERAN, and a selective ER degrader, or SERD, which we believe will drive deeper, more durable responses than existing therapies. OP-1250, both as a monotherapy and in combination with inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6, or CDK4/6, demonstrated robust anti-tumor activity in a range of preclinical xenograft models of breast cancer, including in ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations and central nervous system, or CNS, metastasis. In August 2020, we initiated an ongoing Phase 1/2 monotherapy dose escalation and expansion study evaluating OP-1250 for the treatment of recurrent, locally advanced or metastatic ER-positive, or ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, or HER2-, breast cancer. We reported initial data from the Phase 1a dose escalation portion of this study in November 2021, which provided proof-of-concept for OP-1250 as a monotherapy treatment for ER+/HER2- breast cancer. We reported additional monotherapy data from the Phase 1b dose expansion portion of this study in October 2022 and initiated the Phase 2 portion of the study. We anticipate presenting Phase 2 clinical data for OP-1250 as a monotherapy in the second half of 2023. In 2022, we also initiated Phase 1b/2 dose escalation and expansion studies evaluating OP-1250 in combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors palbociclib and ribociclib and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase alpha, or PI3Ka inhibitor, alpelisib. In December 2022, we reported initial data from the Phase 1a dose escalation portion of the study in combination with palbociclib which demonstrated combinability including no drug-drug interaction, or DDI, between the two agents. We anticipate presenting results from the Phase 2 clinical study for OP-1250 in combination with palbociclib in the second quarter of

22

Table of Contents

2023 and from the Phase 1b clinical study for OP-1250 in combination with ribociclib in the second half of 2023. In July 2022, we were granted Fast Track designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, for OP-1250 for patients with ER+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer that has progressed following one or more lines of endocrine therapy with at least one line given in combination with a CDK4/6 inhibitor. Based on the clinical results we have achieved to date, we are advancing OP-1250 through to late stage clinical development both as a monotherapy and in combination with other targeted agents. We own worldwide development and commercialization rights to OP-1250. We believe OP-1250’s oral formulation and dual mechanism of action directly address the limitations of current endocrine therapies, such as fulvestrant and tamoxifen, and position OP-1250 as a potential endocrine therapy of choice for the treatment of ER+ breast cancers. Our goal is to transform the standard of care for women living with cancers by developing more effective therapies that apply our deep understanding and collective expertise in endocrine-driven cancers, nuclear receptor activities and mechanisms of acquired resistance. On March 9, 2023, we announced a corporate restructuring and portfolio prioritization to focus our resources on the late-stage clinical development of OP-1250 for the treatment of ER+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer.

Since our inception, we have devoted substantially all of our resources to organizing and staffing our company, research and development activities, business planning, raising capital, establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, conducting nonclinical studies and clinical trials and providing general and administrative support for these operations.

We do not have any product candidates approved for commercial sale, and we have not generated any revenue from product sales. Our ability to generate product revenue sufficient to achieve profitability, if ever, will depend on the successful development and eventual commercialization of one or more of our product candidates which we expect, if it ever occurs, will take a number of years. We also do not own or operate, and currently have no plans to establish, any manufacturing facilities. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates for nonclinical and clinical testing, as well as for commercial manufacturing if any of our product candidates obtain marketing approval. We believe that this strategy allows us to maintain a more efficient infrastructure by eliminating the need for us to invest in our own manufacturing facilities, equipment and personnel while also enabling us to focus our expertise and resources on the development of our product candidates.

As of March 31, 2023, we had cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities of $186.0 million. Based on our current operating plan, we believe that our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities as of March 31, 2023 will be sufficient to fund our planned operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2025.

We have incurred significant operating losses since the commencement of our operations. Our net losses were $28.3 million and $23.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We expect to incur significant and increasing losses for the foreseeable future as we continue to advance our product candidate, make potential milestone payments to our licensors, and as we continue to operate as a public company. Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from period to period, depending on the timing of expenditures on our research and development activities. As of March 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $237.3 million. Our primary use of cash is to fund operating expenses, which consist primarily of research and development expenditures and general and administrative expenditures. Cash used to fund operating expenses is impacted by the timing of when we pay these expenses, as reflected in the change in our outstanding accounts payable and other current liabilities.

We expect to continue to incur net operating losses for at least the next several years, and we expect our research and development expenses, general and administrative expenses, and capital expenditures will continue to increase. We expect our expenses and capital requirements will increase significantly in connection with our ongoing activities as we:

continue our ongoing and planned research and development of our lead product candidate OP-1250 for the treatment of ER+ positive breast cancer;

23

Table of Contents

initiate nonclinical studies and clinical trials for any additional product candidates that we may pursue in the future;
seek to discover and develop additional product candidates and further expand our clinical product pipeline;
seek regulatory approvals for any product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
continue to scale up external manufacturing capacity with the aim of securing sufficient quantities to meet our capacity requirements for clinical trials and potential commercialization;
establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any approved product candidates and related additional commercial manufacturing costs;
develop, maintain, expand, protect and enforce our intellectual property portfolio, including patents, trade secrets and know how;
acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies;
attract, hire and retain additional clinical, scientific, quality control, and manufacturing management and administrative personnel;
add clinical, operational, financial and management information systems and personnel, including personnel to support our product development and planned future commercialization efforts;
expand our operations in the United States and to other geographies; and
incur additional legal, accounting, investor relations and other expenses associated with operating as a public company.

Our net losses may fluctuate significantly from quarter-to-quarter and year-to-year, depending on the timing of our clinical trials, potential milestone payments to our licensors, and our expenditures on other research and development activities.

We will require substantial additional funding to develop our product candidate and support our continuing operations. Until such time that we can generate significant revenue from product sales or other sources, if ever, we expect to finance our operations through the sale of equity, debt financings or other capital sources, which could include income from collaborations, strategic partnerships or marketing, distribution, licensing or other strategic arrangements with third parties, or from grants. We may be unable to raise additional funds or to enter into such agreements or arrangements on favorable terms, or at all. Our ability to raise additional funds may be adversely impacted by potential worsening global economic conditions and the recent disruptions to, and volatility in, the credit and financial markets in the United States and worldwide resulting from geopolitical and macroeconomic events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia and related sanctions, and recent bank failures and financial stability. Our failure to obtain sufficient funds on acceptable terms when needed could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition, including requiring us to have to delay, reduce or eliminate our product development or future commercialization efforts. Insufficient liquidity may also require us to relinquish rights to product candidates at an earlier stage of development or on less favorable terms than we would otherwise choose. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our development efforts. We cannot provide assurance that we will ever be profitable or generate positive cash flow from operating activities.

24

Table of Contents

Global economic and business activities continue to face widespread geopolitical and macroeconomic uncertainties, including labor shortages, inflation and monetary supply shifts, bank failures and related financial market risks and instability, recession risks, as well as potential disruptions from the Russia-Ukraine conflict, all of which have resulted in volatility in the U.S. and global financial markets, and disruptions to trade, commerce, pricing stability, credit availability and supply chain continuity globally. The extent of the impact of these factors on our operational and financial performance, including our ability to execute our business strategies and initiatives in the expected time frame, will depend on future developments, which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. Any continued or renewed disruption resulting from these factors could negatively impact our business. We continue to monitor the impact of these geopolitical and macroeconomic factors on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Components of our results of operations

Revenue

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and do not expect to generate any revenue from the sale of products for the foreseeable future.

Operating expenses

Research and development

Research and development expenses account for a significant portion of our operating expenses and consist primarily of external and internal expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and development of our product candidates. To date, our research and development expenses have related primarily to discovery efforts and nonclinical and clinical development of our product candidate OP-1250. Research and development expenses are recognized as incurred and payments made prior to the receipt of goods or services to be used in research and development are capitalized until the goods or services are received.

External expenses include:

expenses incurred in connection with the discovery and nonclinical development of our product candidates, including under agreements with third parties, such as consultants and CROs;
costs of manufacturing products for use in our nonclinical studies and clinical trials, including payments to CMOs and consultants;
costs of funding research performed by third parties;
costs of purchasing lab supplies and non-capital equipment used in designing, developing and manufacturing nonclinical study and clinical trial materials;
costs associated with consultants for chemistry, manufacturing and controls development, regulatory, statistics and other services;
expenses related to regulatory activities, including filing fees paid to regulatory agencies; and
facility costs including rent, depreciation and maintenance expenses.

Internal expenses include employee and personnel-related costs and expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense for employees and personnel engaged in research and development functions.

25

Table of Contents

We expense research and development expenses in the periods in which they are incurred. Costs for certain activities, such as manufacturing and nonclinical studies and clinical trials, are generally recognized based on an evaluation of the progress to completion of specific tasks using information and data provided to us by our vendors and collaborators.

We typically use our employee, consultant and infrastructure resources across our development programs. We track outsourced development costs by product candidate or nonclinical program, but we do not allocate personnel costs, other internal costs or external consultant costs to specific product candidates or nonclinical programs.

Research and development expenses to advance the development of our lead product candidate and nonclinical program were $22.8 million and $16.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

We expect our research and development expenses to increase substantially in absolute dollars for the foreseeable future as we advance OP-1250 or any other future product candidates we may develop into and through nonclinical studies and clinical trials and pursue regulatory approval of our product candidates. The process of conducting the necessary clinical research to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time-consuming. The actual probability of success for OP-1250 or any other future product candidates we may develop may be affected by a variety of factors including but not limited to: the safety and efficacy of our product candidates, early clinical data, investment in our clinical program, the ability of collaborators to successfully develop our licensed product candidates, competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability. We may never succeed in achieving regulatory approval for our product candidates. As a result of the uncertainties discussed above, we are unable to determine the duration and completion costs of our research and development projects or when and to what extent we will generate revenue from the commercialization and sale of our OP-1250 or any other future product candidates we may develop. Clinical and nonclinical development timelines, the probability of success and development costs can differ materially from expectations. We anticipate that we will make determinations as to which product candidates to pursue and how much funding to direct to each product candidate on an ongoing basis in response to the results of ongoing and future nonclinical studies and clinical trials, regulatory developments and our ongoing assessments as to each product candidate’s commercial potential. In addition, we cannot forecast whether OP-1250 or any other future product candidates we may develop may be subject to future collaborations, when such arrangements will be secured, if at all, and to what degree such arrangements would affect our development plans and capital requirements. We are also unable to predict when, if ever, we will generate revenue from our product candidates to offset these expenses. Our expenditures on current and future nonclinical and clinical development programs are subject to numerous uncertainties in timing and cost to completion. The duration, costs and timing of nonclinical studies and clinical trials and development of our product candidates will depend on a variety of factors, including:

the timing and progress of nonclinical and clinical development activities;
the number and scope of nonclinical and clinical programs we decide to pursue;
our ability to maintain our current research and development programs and to establish new ones;
establishing an appropriate safety profile with investigational new drug-enabling toxicology studies;
successful patient enrollment in, and the initiation and completion of, clinical trials;
the successful completion of clinical trials with safety, tolerability and efficacy profiles that are satisfactory to the FDA or any comparable foreign regulatory authority;

26

Table of Contents

establishing commercial manufacturing capabilities or making arrangements with third-party manufacturers;
receipt of regulatory approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
the timing, receipt and terms of any marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
our ability to establish licensing or collaboration arrangements;
the performance of our future collaborators, if any;
development and timely delivery of commercial-grade product formulations that can be used in our planned clinical trials and for commercial launch;
commercializing the product candidate, if approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection and regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;
obtaining, maintaining, defending and enforcing patent claims and other intellectual property rights;
maintaining continued acceptable safety profiles of our products following approval; and
obtaining and retaining key research and development personnel.

Any changes in the outcome of any of these factors could significantly impact the costs, timing and viability associated with the development of our product candidates.

General and administrative

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel expenses, including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation expense, for personnel in executive, finance, accounting, business development, legal, human resources, information technology, or IT, and administrative functions. General and administrative expenses also include costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses, including corporate facility costs, depreciation and other expenses, which include direct or allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities and insurance, and professional fees for legal, patent and consulting services.

We expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase in the foreseeable future as we increase our headcount to support the continued research and development of our programs and the growth of our business. We also anticipate incurring additional expenses associated with operating as a public company, including increased expenses related to the building and improving of our IT infrastructure, including cyber security monitoring, legal, other regulatory and compliance, director and officer insurance, investor and public relations and tax-related services associated with maintaining compliance with the rules and regulations of the SEC and standards applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange, additional insurance expenses, investor relations activities and other administrative and professional services.

Total other income

Total other income consists of interest income and other expenses. Interest income primarily consists of interest income on our cash equivalents and marketable securities. Other expense primarily consists of unrealized foreign currency remeasurement gain (loss) and miscellaneous income (expense) not related to operating activities.

27

Table of Contents

Results of operations

Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022:

Three Months Ended March 31, 

2023

    

2022

    

$ Change

(in thousands)

Operating expenses:

 

  

  

 

  

Research and development

$

22,826

$

16,009

$

6,817

General and administrative

 

6,776

 

7,245

 

(469)

Total operating expenses

 

29,602

 

23,254

 

6,348

Loss from operations

 

(29,602)

 

(23,254)

 

(6,348)

Other income:

 

  

 

  

 

Interest income

 

1,305

 

218

 

1,087

Other income

11

6

5

Total other income

 

1,316

 

224

 

1,092

Net loss

$

(28,286)

$

(23,030)

$

(5,256)

Research and development expenses

Research and development expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2023 were $22.8 million, compared to $16.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. The increase of $6.8 million was primarily due to increased spending in (i) advancing the clinical development for our lead product candidate OP-1250 and the associated contract manufacturing costs, (ii) other nonclinical research and discovery program costs, and (iii) personnel-related costs, including a one-time restructuring charge of $1.8 million, of which $0.1 million relates to non-cash stock-based compensation expense.

General and administrative expenses

General and administrative expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2023 were $6.8 million compared to $7.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022. The decrease of $0.5 million was primarily due to lower corporate costs and personnel-related expenses, including non-cash stock-based compensation expense decrease of $0.4 million, which was offset by a one-time restructuring charge of $1.0 million.

Other income

Other income for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $1.3 million, which primarily consisted of interest income from our marketable securities.

Liquidity and capital resources

Sources of liquidity

Since our inception, we have not generated any revenue from product sales and have incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from our operations. Our net losses were $28.3 million and $23.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Through March 31, 2023, we had received aggregate gross proceeds of $393.4 million from sales of our common stock, convertible preferred stock and issuance of convertible promissory notes, stock option exercises, and the sale of stock through the Company’s 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP.

28

Table of Contents

As of March 31, 2023, we had $186.0 million in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. As of March 31, 2023, we had accumulated deficit of $237.3 million. We had no debt outstanding as of March 31, 2023.

We expect to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future as we advance the clinical development of OP-1250 and nonclinical studies. We expect that our research and development and general and administrative costs will increase in connection with conducting additional nonclinical studies and clinical trials for our current and future research programs and product candidates, contracting with CMOs to support nonclinical studies and clinical trials, expanding our intellectual property portfolio, and providing general and administrative support for our operations. As a result, we will need additional capital to fund our operations, which we may obtain from additional equity or debt financings, collaborations, licensing arrangements or other sources.

Our primary uses of cash are to fund our research and development activities, including with respect to OP-1250 and other nonclinical programs, business planning, establishing and maintaining our intellectual property portfolio, hiring personnel, raising capital and providing general and administrative support for these operations.

We currently have no financing commitments, such as lines of credit or guarantees, that are expected to affect our liquidity over the next five years.

Future funding and material cash requirements

To date, we have not generated any revenue from product sales. We do not expect to generate any meaningful revenue unless and until we obtain regulatory approval of and commercialize any of our product candidates, and we do not know when, or if at all, that will occur. We expect our expenses to increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we initiate and conduct clinical trials of, and seek marketing approval for, OP-1250. In addition, if we obtain marketing approval for our product candidates, we expect to incur significant commercialization expenses related to program sales, marketing, manufacturing and distribution to the extent that such sales, marketing and distribution are not the responsibility of potential collaborators. Furthermore, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our development efforts.

We expect our cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities as of March 31, 2023 will enable us to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2025 at which point we would need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we would be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research and development programs or future commercialization efforts. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including:

the scope, progress, results and costs of product discovery, nonclinical studies and clinical trials;
the scope, prioritization and number of our research and development programs;
the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidate;
our ability to establish and maintain collaborations on favorable terms, if at all;
the achievement of milestones or occurrence of other developments that trigger payments under any collaboration agreements we enter into;
the extent to which we are obligated to reimburse, or entitled to reimbursement of, clinical trial costs under collaboration agreements, if any;

29

Table of Contents

the costs of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending intellectual property-related claims;
the extent to which we acquire or in-license other product candidates and technologies;
the costs of securing manufacturing arrangements for commercial production; and
the costs of establishing or contracting for sales and marketing capabilities if we obtain regulatory approvals to market our product candidates.

Identifying potential product candidates and conducting nonclinical studies and clinical trials is a time- consuming, expensive and uncertain process that takes many years to complete, and we may never generate the necessary data or results required to obtain marketing approval and achieve product sales. In addition, our product candidate, if approved, may not achieve commercial success. Our commercial revenues, if any, will be derived from sales of a product candidate that we do not expect to be commercially available for many years, if at all. Accordingly, we will need to continue to rely on additional financing to achieve our business objectives. Adequate additional financing may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenues, we expect to finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings, debt financings, collaborations, strategic alliances and licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a stockholder. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends.

If we raise funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or to grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. If we are unable to raise additional funds through equity or debt financings when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves.

Cash flows

The following table shows a summary of our cash flows for each of the periods presented:

Three Months Ended March 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

Net cash used in operating activities

$

(20,391)

$

(17,903)

Net cash provided by investing activities

 

37,387

 

25,567

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

220

 

33

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

$

17,216

$

7,697

Operating activities

Net cash used in operating activities during the three months ended March 31, 2023 consisted primarily of our net loss of $28.3 million, offset by non-cash charges of $3.9 million and a net increase in net operating assets and liabilities of $4.0 million. The net loss consisted primarily of $22.8 million in research and development expenses and $6.8 million in general and administrative expenses. The non-cash charges consisted primarily of stock-based compensation of $4.6 million and depreciation and amortization expenses of $0.1 million, and non-cash lease expense of less than $0.1 million, net of cash payments of $0.3 million. These non-cash expenses were partially offset by net discount accretion on our marketable securities of $0.9 million. The net increase in operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to (i) a net increase of $2.7 million in other current

30

Table of Contents

liabilities, (ii) a net increase of $1.0 million in prepaid expenses and other current assets and (iii) a net increase of $0.3 million in accounts payable, which is primarily a result of timing of invoice payment.

Net cash used in operating activities during the three months ended March 31, 2022 consisted primarily of our net loss of $23.0 million, offset by non-cash charges of $5.1 million and a net increase in net operating assets and liabilities of $0.1 million. The net loss consisted primarily of $16.0 million in research and development expenses and $7.2 million in general and administrative expenses. The non-cash charges consisted primarily of stock-based compensation of $5.0 million and depreciation and amortization expenses of $0.1 million, and noncash lease expense of less than $0.1 million, net of cash payments of $0.3 million. The net increase in operating assets and liabilities was primarily due to (i) a net decrease of $0.2 million in prepaid expenses and other current assets and (ii) an increase of $0.2 million in accounts payable, which is primarily a result of timing of invoice payment. The changes are partially offset by (i) a net increase of $0.2 million in other assets and (ii) a net decrease of $0.1 million in other current liabilities.

Investing Activities

Net cash provided by investing activities during the three months ended March 31, 2023 was predominately due to maturities of marketable securities which was offset by the purchase of marketable securities.

Net cash provided by investing activities during the three months ended March 31, 2022 was predominately due to maturities of marketable securities which was offset by the purchase of marketable securities.

Financing activities

Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended March 31, 2023 represents $0.2 million from the exercise of stock options.

Net cash provided by financing activities during the three months ended March 31, 2022 represents less than $0.1 million from the exercise of stock options.

Contractual obligations and commitments

Refer to Note 10 of our notes to the condensed consolidated financial statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for further information. There have been no material changes outside the ordinary course of business during the three months ended March 31, 2023 to our commitments and contingencies disclosed in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed on March 9, 2023 with the SEC.

Critical accounting policies and significant judgements and estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP. The preparation of our condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, expenses and the disclosure of our contingent liabilities in our condensed consolidated financial statements. We base our estimates on historical experience, known trends and events and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

During the three months ended March 31, 2023, there were no material changes to our critical accounting policies and estimates as reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K.

31

Table of Contents

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

During the three months ended March 31, 2023, there were no material changes to our market risk disclosures reported in our Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 4.     Controls and Procedures.

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

As of March 31, 2023, management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, performed an evaluation of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

Any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objective and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Based on this evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that, as of March 31, 2023, the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at a reasonable assurance level.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

There was no change in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rules 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the three months ended March 31, 2023 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

PART II-OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings.

From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party to any material legal proceedings. Regardless of outcome, such proceedings or claims can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of resources and other factors, and there can be no assurances that favorable outcomes will be obtained.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Our business involves significant risks, some of which are described below. You should carefully consider the following risks, as well as the other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, prospects and stock price. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also impair our business operations and the market price of our common stock.

32

Table of Contents

RISK FACTOR SUMMARY

Investing in our common stock involves numerous risks, including the risks described in “Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Below are some of these risks, any one of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

We have not completed any clinical trials and have no products approved for commercial sale, which may make it difficult for you to evaluate our current business and predict our future success and viability.
We require substantial additional capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to raise such capital when needed, or on acceptable terms, we may be forced to delay, reduce and/or eliminate one or more of our research and drug development programs of our only product or future commercialization efforts.
We have incurred net losses since inception, and we expect to continue to incur net losses for the foreseeable future. We expect to continue to incur increased expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future as we continue our research and development efforts and seek to obtain regulatory approval for OP-1250. In addition, we may be unable to continue as a going concern over the long term.
We may not realize the expected benefits from our recent corporate restructuring, portfolio prioritization, and workforce reduction and we may incur additional costs or other difficulties implementing such initiatives.
We are substantially dependent on the success of our only product candidate, OP-1250, which is currently in the early stages of clinical development. We cannot assure you that our planned clinical development programs for OP-1250 will be completed in a timely manner, or at all, or that we will be able to obtain approval for OP-1250 from the FDA, or any comparable foreign regulatory authority. If we are unable to complete development of, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize OP-1250 in one or more indications and in a timely manner, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects will be significantly harmed.
Clinical development is a lengthy and expensive process with an uncertain outcome, and results of earlier studies and trials may not be predictive of future trial results. Failure can occur at any stage of clinical development. We have never completed a pivotal clinical trial or submitted a New Drug Application, or NDA, t